Company structure in Romania
- Company Name
All company names must be approved and reserved by the trade register office; it usually takes less than a day. Words suggesting geographic locations are limited and special approval is required to use the word “Romania”; approval takes approximately 30 days.
All companies registered in Romania must have a registered office in Romania where all company documents and correspondence can be sent. A head office is included in our business creation package in Romania.
Only one director is required for the creation of a Romanian company, there is no restriction of nationality or residence and company directors are allowed. A company register containing the contact details of the directors must be filed with the commercial register for public inspection.
Only one shareholder is required and a maximum of fifty shareholders is authorized for an SRL incorporation. There are no restrictions on nationality or residence and corporate shareholders are permitted. Shareholders can also be directors. A company register containing the contact details of the shareholders must be filed with the commercial register for public inspection
The minimum share capital is 200 RON and must be fully paid up in cash upon incorporation. The shares must be divided equally, the minimum value per share being 10 RON.
Once all documents have been received, the incorporation process typically takes 7-10 business days.
Companies are required to keep accounting records in Romanian and Romanian Lei. All businesses are required to prepare and file annual financial statements at the end of the fiscal year following the calendar year. Companies that are not listed and do not exceed a certain turnover, assets and a certain number of employees can produce simplified financial statements. Companies that exceed these limits must also have a mandatory audit of their accounts.
Key figures of Companies in Romania
|Proper noun||România (ro)|
|Population||19,524,125 inhabitants (2018)|
|Population growth||-0.61 % / year|
|Density||81.90 inhabitants / km²|
|GDP||239.553 billion $USD (2018)|
|GDP / capita||12,301 $USD (2018)|
|GDP growth||4.10 % / year (2018)|
|Life expectancy||75.90 years (2018)|
|Birth-rate||9.00 ‰ (2016)|
|Fertility rate||1.34 children / woman (2016)|
|Mortality rate||11.90 ‰ (2016)|
|Child mortality rate||9.60 ‰ (2016)|
|Literacy rate||98,77 % (2015)|
|Official languages||Romanian (French, Hungarian, German spoken)|
|Change||Romanian new leu (plural lei) (RON)|
|HDI||0,816 / 1 (2018)|
|Nature of State||parliamentary republic|
|Head of state||President Klaus Iohannis|
|National Holiday||December 1 (unification of 1918)|
|Codes ISO||RO, ROU|
|Tourists||2,760,000 people (2017)|
Sharp decline in population for 20 years
The Romania is a state in Eastern Europe, the 7e most populous country in the European Union and the 9e by its area. It borders Hungary to the west, Ukraine and Moldova to the north and east, Bulgaria to the south and Serbia to the southwest.
Joining the European Union in 2007 did not solve all the problems at once. Admittedly, the financial windfall has finally enabled the country to start renovating its infrastructure, which was totally out of the ordinary or downright non-existent before. Foreign investment has also reduced unemployment, but it is not everything.
Society and institutions must always be renovated, a very important part of the population still lives in the countryside, deprived of any public service or almost, which pushes to the emigration of millions of Romanians (3 million in two decades!) . Having left to live and work abroad, emptying entire areas at the same time, this “forced” economic emigration deprives the country of a workforce that is often young and better trained. In total, the country has lost more than 20 % of its population since 1992, and the pace is not weakening (-120,700 inhabitants in 2017).
Finally, corruption remains endemic, hinders the potential for economic growth and remains a source of tension with other members of the European Union.
Corporate Taxation in Romania
Corporate tax rate (IS)
|Global CIT rate (%)||16|
Corporate tax (IS) due dates
|CIT return deadline||The annual CIT declaration is due no later than March 25 of the following year if the financial years correspond to the calendar year; for cases where the fiscal year is different from the calendar year, the annual corporate tax return is due no later than the 25th day of the third month after the end of the company's fiscal year. Quarterly corporate tax returns are submitted by the 25th day of the month following the first, second and third quarters at the latest.|
|CIT final payment due date||The final CIT payment is usually due on the 25th day of the third month after the end of the company's fiscal year.|
|Estimated due dates for CIT payments||Quarterly payments are due no later than the 25th day of the first month following the first, second and third quarters.|
Personal income tax rate (PPI)
|Global PIT rate (%)||10%|
Personal income tax (PIT) due dates
|PIT return due date||May 25|
|IRP final payment due date||NP|
|PIT estimated due dates||NP|
Value added tax (VAT) rate
|Standard VAT rate (%)||19|
Withholding tax rate (WHT)
|WHT rate (%) (Div / Int / Roy)||Resident: 5 * / NA / NA;
Non-resident: 5/16/16 (tariffs can be reduced by applying the parent-subsidiary directive, the interest-royalty directive or a TNT)
* The WHT rate on dividends may be reduced to 0% in the event that the beneficiary company holds at least 10% of the shares of the company distributing the dividends for at least one year.
Capital gains tax rate (CGT)
|Corporate capital gains tax rate (%)||Capital gains are subject to the normal corporate tax rate.|
|Tax rate for individual capital gains (%)||Capital gains are subject to the standard IRPP rate.|
Wealth / Equity Tax Rate
|Global wealth / equity tax rate (%)||N / A|
Rate of inheritance and gift tax
|Rate of inheritance tax (%)||N / A|
|Gift tax rate (%)||N / A|